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2017年8月12日星期六

診斷所患何病 - 古德明 | 2017-08-12 | | 蘋果日報

診斷所患何病 - 古德明 | 2017-08-12 | | 蘋果日報

診斷所患何病 - 古德明

問:He was diagnosed to have suffered from diabetes(他據診斷患了糖尿病)這一句,文法正確嗎?我的上司把句子改作He was diagnosed with diabetes。
答:請先看一九七五年版The Random House College Dictionary diagnose條下注釋:to determine the identity of an illness by a medical examination(憑醫學檢查,判斷某疾病是什麼疾病)。既說「判斷某疾病」,則diagnose的受詞(object)只可是疾病,不可以是病人。所以,英語學者Charles Lurie一九二七年出版的How to Say It不贊成「以人作diagnose的受詞(using the verb "diagnose" with a person as its object)」。根據這原則,讀者示下那兩句文法都不正確,應該改正為His illness / condition was diagnosed as diabetes或He was found to have diabetes。
不過,今天常見diagnose一字以人作受詞,連第七版《牛津高階英漢雙解詞典》都有以下例句:「He has recently been diagnosed with angina他最近被診斷出患有心絞痛。」可見以人作diagnose的受詞,一般已不視為錯誤。而讀者那位上司,用的正是牛津詞典所示句式。此外,那一句還可改寫如下:He was diagnosed as(或to be)suffering from diabetes、 He was diagnosed as(或to be)a diabetic。留意用as比用to be常見。
至於He was diagnosed to have suffered from diabetes,那是說「他據診斷曾患糖尿病」,有「他現已痊癒」含義,意思有點不同。



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